Handy! RGB to HSL and RGB to HSV color model conversion algorithms in JavaScript

Reposted from mjijackson.com -- this is so cool that we should make sure there are more copies of this on the net, just in case. =D

Here is a set of additive color model conversion algorithms that I found published on Wikipedia and have implemented in JavaScript. It was surprisingly difficult to find these actually implemented anywhere in compact, efficient, and bug-free code, so I wrote my own. These should be easily portable to other programming languages if desired.

/**
 * Converts an RGB color value to HSL. Conversion formula
 * adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_color_space.
 * Assumes r, g, and b are contained in the set [0, 255] and
 * returns h, s, and l in the set [0, 1].
 *
 * @param   Number  r       The red color value
 * @param   Number  g       The green color value
 * @param   Number  b       The blue color value
 * @return  Array           The HSL representation
 */
function rgbToHsl(r, g, b){
    r /= 255, g /= 255, b /= 255;
    var max = Math.max(r, g, b), min = Math.min(r, g, b);
    var h, s, l = (max + min) / 2;

    if(max == min){
        h = s = 0; // achromatic
    }else{
        var d = max - min;
        s = l > 0.5 ? d / (2 - max - min) : d / (max + min);
        switch(max){
            case r: h = (g - b) / d + (g < b ? 6 : 0); break;
            case g: h = (b - r) / d + 2; break;
            case b: h = (r - g) / d + 4; break;
        }
        h /= 6;
    }

    return [h, s, l];
}

/**
 * Converts an HSL color value to RGB. Conversion formula
 * adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSL_color_space.
 * Assumes h, s, and l are contained in the set [0, 1] and
 * returns r, g, and b in the set [0, 255].
 *
 * @param   Number  h       The hue
 * @param   Number  s       The saturation
 * @param   Number  l       The lightness
 * @return  Array           The RGB representation
 */
function hslToRgb(h, s, l){
    var r, g, b;

    if(s == 0){
        r = g = b = l; // achromatic
    }else{
        function hue2rgb(p, q, t){
            if(t < 0) t += 1;
            if(t > 1) t -= 1;
            if(t < 1/6) return p + (q - p) * 6 * t;
            if(t < 1/2) return q;
            if(t < 2/3) return p + (q - p) * (2/3 - t) * 6;
            return p;
        }

        var q = l < 0.5 ? l * (1 + s) : l + s - l * s;
        var p = 2 * l - q;
        r = hue2rgb(p, q, h + 1/3);
        g = hue2rgb(p, q, h);
        b = hue2rgb(p, q, h - 1/3);
    }

    return [r * 255, g * 255, b * 255];
}

/**
 * Converts an RGB color value to HSV. Conversion formula
 * adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSV_color_space.
 * Assumes r, g, and b are contained in the set [0, 255] and
 * returns h, s, and v in the set [0, 1].
 *
 * @param   Number  r       The red color value
 * @param   Number  g       The green color value
 * @param   Number  b       The blue color value
 * @return  Array           The HSV representation
 */
function rgbToHsv(r, g, b){
    r = r/255, g = g/255, b = b/255;
    var max = Math.max(r, g, b), min = Math.min(r, g, b);
    var h, s, v = max;

    var d = max - min;
    s = max == 0 ? 0 : d / max;

    if(max == min){
        h = 0; // achromatic
    }else{
        switch(max){
            case r: h = (g - b) / d + (g < b ? 6 : 0); break;
            case g: h = (b - r) / d + 2; break;
            case b: h = (r - g) / d + 4; break;
        }
        h /= 6;
    }

    return [h, s, v];
}

/**
 * Converts an HSV color value to RGB. Conversion formula
 * adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSV_color_space.
 * Assumes h, s, and v are contained in the set [0, 1] and
 * returns r, g, and b in the set [0, 255].
 *
 * @param   Number  h       The hue
 * @param   Number  s       The saturation
 * @param   Number  v       The value
 * @return  Array           The RGB representation
 */
function hsvToRgb(h, s, v){
    var r, g, b;

    var i = Math.floor(h * 6);
    var f = h * 6 - i;
    var p = v * (1 - s);
    var q = v * (1 - f * s);
    var t = v * (1 - (1 - f) * s);

    switch(i % 6){
        case 0: r = v, g = t, b = p; break;
        case 1: r = q, g = v, b = p; break;
        case 2: r = p, g = v, b = t; break;
        case 3: r = p, g = q, b = v; break;
        case 4: r = t, g = p, b = v; break;
        case 5: r = v, g = p, b = q; break;
    }

    return [r * 255, g * 255, b * 255];
}

 

32 responses
"Just in case" has come to pass and the original is offline. Thanks for keeping the site up!
I came here from Stackoverflow where your post was quoted. I'd like to ask you why you have chosen the hue to be between 0.0 and 1.0? I understand such decision for the luminance and saturation (which are measured in percentage hence0.0-1.0 instead of 0-100% is not a big deal at all and in fact is the better way to represent the data). The hue however is in degrees (or radians if you prefer). I can't figure out what exactly is this interval that you have picked for the hue since it's neither in degrees nor in radians. If replace the "h /=6" with "h *= 60" (I'm still rewriting your code in C++ so dunno if such issues are present in the HSL to RGB conversion) you get degrees, which then can easily be converted to radians if the developer wants to.
Great stuff, but why use RGB values in 0-255, but HSL values as 0-1? Why not both RGB and HSL values as 0-255?
@Birger I now understand why that is. True, that it's a little bit more difficult to read 0.0 - 1.0 instead of 0-255 (not to mention that the float offers a larger range of colors that are however not used once the conversion to 0-255 is done) however it does make things much more consistent. You know that all is between 0.0 and 1.0.
A real time saver. Thanks for posting this. X)
Btw I needed this for a project but not on the Arduino. You can check my version of the library here: https://github.com/aleksandaratanasov/RGBConverter It has a couple of extra conversions that you can use too! :)
26 visitors upvoted this post.